The common narrative on the Upper St. Lawrence River once was, "You probably shouldn't swim in it." and "Don't eat the fish!". Within settler history, this region was a major hub for industries such as GM, Domtar, and Alcoa (among others). In the 80’s, a review of available data led the Canadian and American governments to designate Cornwall, Massena and Akwesasne as Areas of Concern (AOC) due to severe environmental abuses. With the closure of many of these industries the river is slowly healing but the legacy of industry continues to impact ecological and human health.