Before the fall of Kabul, between 1,000 and 2,000 Afghans, a day were thought to be arriving in Turkey, thought of as the gateway to Europe. The route takes as long as three months via Iran or Iran and Pakistan often by foot. Some die from the harsh conditions, others are robbed on the way or beaten by border guards, yet a few make it into Turkey.
Mohammed, 21, an undocumented Afghan himself, is a people smuggler who helps Afghans enter Turkey near the city of Van in the east.
I followed him as he uses fake documents to try to buy travel tickets to transport a newly arrived family to western Turkey also spoke to one of the families he is helping to smuggle about why they fled Afghanistan and what life was like under the Taliban.
Many of the migrants who arrive in Turkey are keen to move onto Europe. I also visited a house in Istanbul where 12 undocumented Afghan men live to speak about why they don’t want to stay in Turkey – they are scared they will be caught by police and sent home.