The macro-conflict ended with the NATO bombing of Belgrade in 1999 in retaliation for the Muslim massacre of Srebrenica, despite the agreements of Peace of Dayton, signed 3 years earlier with the mediation of the United States. The war conflict left more than 130,000 fatalities and millions of refugees, resulting in the current division of extint Yugoslavia into 7 nations, although Kosovo, scene of conflicts since its self-proclamation in 2008, has not been recognized internationally.
Belgrade, the capital of Yugoslavia then and Serbia now, was one of the first European cities to be founded, located in the heart of the Balkans, considered the historical point of union between East and West, with what this has meant in terms of extraordinary meeting of cultures, as well as in complexity and fragility. Important city already during the Roman Empire, which built a fortress at the confluence of the Danube and Sava rivers, the basis of which it exists today.
With a deeply rooted identity, Serbia has not wanted to adhere to any external project, a spirit already in force since the time of Tito, who at the end of the Second World War ruled Yugoslavia with its own communist system, unmarked from Stalin's USSR and open to the West, known as "self-managed socialism", which gave them years of prosperity and progress, giving them such international prominence that Yugoslavia led the Alliance of Non-Aligned Countries during the Cold War, which sought to foster an understanding between the United States and the USSR. Today that spirit is still in force since Serbia does not belong to the European Union, nor to the euro zone nor to the free of borders Schengen area.
In Serbia there are still signs of the warlike conflict that hit it in the 90s and with which the population, accustomed to suffering the horrors of war (it was also bombed by the Luftwaffe in 1941) and living between economic crises and political tensions, coexists with striking naturalness, while the country opens its doors to capitalism, although it is not difficult to perceive a certain skepticism and distrust regarding the future.