The word "acropolis" is defined as a citadel or fortified part of an ancient Greek city, typically built on a hill. There are other acropoleis in Greece, however, the Acropolis of Athens is the most famous.
This rocky hill has been inhabited since the 4th millennium BC. The buildings that still stand today were constructed under the direction of Pericles in the 5th century BC. The Parthenon, the Temple of Athena Nike, the Propylaea, and others, are the remnants of the Golden Age of Greece.
The Parthenon dominates the Acropolis, this is one of the most recognizable and imitated buildings in the world. It was built to honor the Greek goddess Athena Parthenos, the patron of Athens. Since its construction, the Parthenon has also served as a Christian church and as an Islamic mosque. A portion of the Parthenos was destroyed when the Venetians struck and hit the building with a mortar round, fired while attacking the Ottomans.
Since 1975, the Acropolis has been undergoing extensive renovation. The marble columns are being restored and most likely you will see scaffolding holding up the portions of the buildings.
The gateway into Acropolis is the Propylaea, a grand entrance, meant to impress visitors with its colonnaded entryway and marble buildings. Next to it, is the Temple of Athena Nike, this small temple is dedicated to the goddess Athena Nike who was the protector of the city of Athens.
What appears to be one building is really three separate temples and sanctuaries: Erechtheion, Pandroseion, and the old temple of Athena. These were built on a sacred spot on the Acropolis, the site where Athena and Poseidon battled for the patronage of Athens, the site where a salty spring appeared when Poseidon hit the ground with his trident, and the site where an olive tree grew when Athena hit the ground with a rock.
One of the most startling features are the famous Caryatids, six female statues that serve as columns to support the roof of the porch.
Located at the far eastern end of the Acropolis is a slightly elevated viewpoint with wonderful views across the Acropolis and the city of Athens.
The Odeon of Herodes Atticus is one of the more "modern" buildings in Acropolis, located on the southern slopes near the Propylaea, built in 161 AD. This theater can accommodate almost 5000 people and it is still used for performances during the summer months.